ADR Medical Abbreviation

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The ADR Medical Abbreviation stands for Adverse Drug Reaction. And this refers to unwanted, uncomfortable, or dangerous effects that a drug may have.

The medical abbreviation ADR can also be referred to as a medical term that is used in clinical pharmacology to refer to drug toxicity or side effects, which occur as a result of the body trying to utilize or metabolize a particular drug.

However, it should be noted that every drug has its side effects, which should be well explained before they are been prescribed to a patient.

Adverse drug reactions can also be described as unintended side effects that occur as a result of a temporal inhibition of drugs, usually due to drug metabolism disorders. In addition, the degree of adverse drug reaction depends on two major factors which are;

1. Patient’s factor: This includes, age, sex, existing disorders, genetic, geographic factors, or ethnicity. Another important factor can also be the patient’s current state, such as pregnancy, etc.  

2. The Drug Factors or Constituents:  This includes, the type of drug, administration route, treatment duration, dosage, bioavailability, and so on.

What Are the Causes and Types of ADR?

The major types are usually dose related. This adverse reaction occurs when the quantity of drug administered or used by a patient is more than what the body needs. And mostly, the reactions are very easy to predict because they are dose-related.

However, adverse reactions that are not dose-related are usually very hard to predict. Therefore, listed hereunder are the Etiology/Types Of ADR.

1. Dose-Related ADRs: This type of ADR is usually influenced by a patient’s drug usage, both its quantity and sometimes its qualities. However, this reaction can happen both with normal and excessive drug use. Also, an important note is that patients using drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index are highly susceptible to adverse drug reactions.

2. Allergic ADRs: Allergic drug reactions require prior exposure and are not dose-related. A perfect class of drugs that can cause an allergic reaction are drugs that function as antigens or allergens. When a patient becomes sensitized to a substance, further exposure to it might cause one of several forms of allergic reaction. However, sometimes it is possible to predict this type of ADR using clinical history and proper skin testing.

3. Idiosyncratic ADRs: These are unanticipated ADRs that are neither allergic nor dose-related. They happen in a very small proportion. Idiosyncrasy is a vague concept that has been characterized as an aberrant pharmacological response determined by genetics.  However, note that not all idiosyncratic reactions are caused by pharmacogenomics. As the specific processes of ADRs are understood, the phrase could become outdated.

Other types of ADR include time-related reactions, withdrawal reactions, dose-time-related reactions, and so on.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Adverse Drug Reactions?

After the initial dose or only after prolonged use, signs and symptoms may appear. They could be immediately apparent signs of drug usage or they might be too subtle to notice. Subtle ADRs can lead to functional decline, mental status changes, failure to flourish, appetite loss, disorientation, and depression in older persons.

In addition, the signs and symptoms of ADR also vary among individuals depending on specific characteristics mentioned earlier in this post. Therefore, in treating or predicting adverse drug reactions, a detailed clinical background check must be done on the patient coupled with a series of tests.

1. Mild Symptoms: These include red, itchy, or swollen skin. And it is also possible that you have a red, flat area of skin that is dotted with tiny pimples. Additionally, you can get hives.

 2. Severe Symptoms: Blistering or peeling skin, eyesight issues, and intense swelling or itching are examples of severe symptoms. Conditions like toxic epidermal necrolysis are examples of severe drug reactions (TEN).

3. Anaphylaxis symptoms: These symptoms include, wheezing, tingling, a constricted or blocked throat, difficulty breathing, and dizziness. An abrupt, life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis requires immediate medical attention. 

Diagnosis of Adverse Drug Reaction

Your doctor will inquire about your health history and allergies. If you experienced anaphylaxis after being exposed to a trigger and then exercising, you might require extra testing. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is what causes this. Medicines may act as an inducer or as a catalyst. Any of the subsequent tests may also be done:

A patch test involves applying a small amount of the medication to your skin. A patch is applied to the region and remains there for two days. Your doctor will then examine your skin to see if there has been a reaction.

In a skin-prick test, a tiny amount of the medication is applied to your forearm, and your skin is poked with a needle. Your healthcare practitioner will keep an eye out for a response.

In an intradermal test, a tiny amount of liquid containing the drug is injected beneath the skin’s surface. Your healthcare practitioner will keep an eye out for a response.

A challenge test is another name for a drug test that is provoked. Your doctor administers the medication to you in increasing doses while keeping an eye out for any side effects.

Treatment Of Adverse Drug Reactions

  1. Discontinuation of the drug if there is a substitute
  2. Modification of the number of doses
  3. Antihistamines can be used to treat mild symptoms
  4. Epinephrine can be used to reduce allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis

However, in some cases, medication is administered in a few hours worth of modest dosages from your doctor. Whatever allergic reaction you experience, the provider will treat it. Until the full dose is reached and the medication stops producing an allergic reaction, the dose is increased gradually.

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